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Bassin du Drugeon Natura 2000 site
Site Natura 2000 Bassin du Drugeon

france

First Listed

2021

Area
65.20km2

Why is it Green Listed?

Spread over 6 704 ha and 14 communes (12 in the Doubs and 2 in the Jura), the glacial footprint has left a unique geomorphology, which today offers a great diversity of environments and species.

The watershed corresponds to that of Drugeon and its hairy stream, afferences and reaches. The Drugeon has its source in
the mountains of Laveron and Mont Noir on the heights of the lakes of Remoray and Saint-Point where it bears the name of
Bief Belin and Ru de Chantegrue. It flows into the Doubs, about thirty kilometers further downstream of Pontarlier.

Nous avons particulièrement fiers d’intégrer la liste verte de l’UICN, d’autant plus que nous sommes le premier site Natura 2000 à être labellisé. Cette inscription reconnaît l’efficacité de plus de 20 ans de gestion de la vallée du Drugeon

L'Établissement Public d'Aménagement et de Gestion de l'Eau Haut-Doubs Haute-Loue

Key Achievements

Conservation

  • Competent engineering, follow-up in place for many years
  • An improvement in the condition of the Drugeon, wetlands and peat bogs

Good governance

  • A Natura 2000 site that has been in operation for more than 20 years.
  • Regular solicitation of all users (government departments, owners, elected officials, associations, users, etc.)

Community benefits

  • Une histoire culturelle liée à l’exploitation de la tourbe bien ancrée et valorisée par les actions Natura 2000
  • Un lien de longue date avec les usagers du site
  • Une bonne cohésion entre les structures liées à l’ouverture au public et le gestionnaire

We are glad that efficient management and good state of conservation of 7 new French sites have been recognized by the Green List Program! I have no doubt they will constitute inspirational sources and new references for future applicants. Diversity and richness of habitats, species, governance systems and protection status of French Continental and Overseas territories are now well represented by those 22 Greenlisted sites. They will very soon be engaged in the creation of the Francophone Green List network and globally contribute to the international influence of the Green List.

Attaché emeritus of the French Natural Museum of Natural History and EAGL Chair France, Jean-Philippe SIBLET

Site Attributes

WDPA ID

Size
65.20km2

Designation(s)
Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) - Natura 2000

IUCN Category
IV - Habitat/Species Management Area

Year Established
2005

Marine Protected Area
No

Governance Type
Collaborative governance

Site Agency
DREAL Bourgogne Franche-Comté

Site Manager
EPAGE Haut-Doubs Haute-Lou

Application
18/07/2018

EAGL Evaluation
04/03/2020

GL Committee Submission
03/02/2021

EAGL Chair
Jean-Philippe SIBLET

ASI Reviewer
Mounia Essefiani

Site Summary

The Natura 2000 site in the Drugeon basin is designated both under the Birds Directive (Special Protection Area) and under the Habitats Directive (Special Conservation Area), with a surface area of ​​6,520 ha and 6 704 ha.

The Drugeon Basin is also an international wetland of the Ramsar Convention, home to a regional nature reserve “the peat bogs of Frasne-Bouverans” and “la Seigne des Barbouillons”, as well as a site Sensitive Natural Spaces of the Department “the lake of Bouverans and the marsh of Varot”.

Spread over 6 704 ha and 14 communes (12 in the Doubs and 2 in the Jura), the glacial footprint has left a unique geomorphology, which today offers a great diversity of environments and species.

The watershed corresponds to that of Drugeon and its hairy stream, afferences and reaches. The Drugeon has its source in the mountains of Laveron and Mont Noir on the heights of the lakes of Remoray and Saint-Point where it bears the name of Bief Belin and Ru de Chantegrue. It flows into the Doubs, about thirty kilometers further downstream of Pontarlier.

NATURAL VALUES: 1. Wetlands and peatlandss : a) Measure opening works in wetlands to favor open and semiopen landscapes' biodiversity (pasture, grinding, etc.)
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
Monitoring of heritage rhopaloceres species (butterflies). Transects Monitoring of heritage odonates species. Targeted search
< 3 individuals/100m and decreasing population : Bad From 3 to 6 individuals/100 m and stable population : Good > 6 individuals + de 6 individus/100 m and increasing population : Very good < 25 indivduals / pond and decreasing population : Bad From 25 to 50 individuals/pond and stable population : Good > 50 individuals/pond and increasing population : Very good
GOOD GOOD
Some stations are increasing, others stable or decreasing. Although the Drugeon Basin hosts the largest populations in the Juras massif, numbers are globally decreasing, as they are at the whole national level. Deterioration (lack of water due to drainage and drought) and habitats fragmentation are the main causes. A more in-depth study is about to be carried on on butterflies genetic. The Drugeon Basin hosts the largest populations in the Juras massi. Although some stations may see population decreasing or increasing, numbers are globally stable because of the large number of ponds and vegetation and composition richness.
NATURAL VALUES: 1. Wetlands and peatlandss : a) Measure opening works in wetlands to favor open and semiopen landscapes' biodiversity (pasture, grinding, etc.)
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
Monitoring of heritage flora Monitoring of wetlands' Phytosociological groups. Permanent squares Monitoring of common European adder by photoidentification Biannual counting of Common snipes
Liparis de loesel < 400 individuals/ha : Bad From 400 to 700 individuals/ha : Good > 700 individuals/ha : Very good Calamagrostis stricta < 300 individuals/ha : Bad From 300 to 1000 individus/ha : Good > 1000 individuals/ha : Very good Carex heleonastes < 600 individuals/ha : Bad From 600 to 2000 individuals/ha : Good > 2000 individuals/ha : Very good Decreasing population : Bad Stable : Good Increasing population : Very good < 30 ground singers and deacreasing population : Bad From 30 to 65 ground singers and stable population : Good > 65 ground singers and increasing population : Very good
Liparis de loesel : VERY GOOD Calamagrosti stricta : GOOD Carex heleonastes : GOOD VERY GOOD VERY GOOD GOOD
Peatland flora species populations are quite stable. Except for the Saxifrage oeil de bouc for which the last remaining natural population is in the Drugeon because of habitat fragmentation, drainage and climate change. Reopening works are efficient to maintain and at some point enhance tipicality of associated florsitic habitats. Despite only 2 years of data, the study showed that the population is relatively large (> 30 individuals), which can be related to a good state of conservation of its habitat (wintering, feeding, reproduction). Long term data will show the evolution. Number of common snipes has remained relatively stable for several years now, after a massive decline for 20 years. This local condition relfects the national situation. Habitats fragmentation, hunting on reproduction areas and disturbances are the main identified causes. The Drugeon is the most important reproduction site at altitude in France.
NATURAL VALUES: 1. Weatlands and peatlands : b) Measure proper functionning of peats sytems before and after hydrological restoration works (drainage ditches plugging)
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
Monitoring water saturation point in soils with piezometric monitoring Characteristic flora monitoring of peatlands Monitoring of phytosociological groups in peatlands Invasive alien Species watch and intervention. (Solidage)
Continuous water engorgement and low amplitude of the water table (between 0 and 20 depths in low water period) : Very good Water level between 20 to 40cm depths and important water table amplitude in low water period : Good Water level > 40 cm depths and high water table amplitude several times per year : Bad Liparis de loesel < 400 individuals/ha : Bad From 400 to 700 individuals/ha : Good > 700 individuals/ha : Very good Calamagrostis stricta < 300 individuals/ha : Bad From 300 to 1000 individus/ha : Good > 1000 individuals/ha : Very good Carex heleonastes < 600 individuals/ha : Bad From 600 to 2000 individuals/ha : Good > 2000 individuals/ha : Very good Enhancement of typicality of the groups : Very good Maintaining tipicality : Good Deterioration of tipicality of the groups : Bad Station disapperaring : Very good Station surface stable : Good Surface station increasing : Bad
The habitats managed by EPAGE are rather in good condition. GOOD Liparis de loesel : VERY GOOD Calamagrosti stricta : GOOD Carex heleonastes : GOOD GOOD GOOD
the peat habitats restored and / or managed by EPAGE are rather in better condition, with a marked drying trend anyway, due to successive unprecedented droughts (climate change). Heritage species stations are stablized after restoration works, even increasing of distrubution areas (Liparis at the Frasne station). Need for longterm data to confirm the trends. Hydrological restoration works maintained the necessary water level to maintain natural habitats, especially when facing successive droughts. Phystosociological groups are stable so far. Need for longterm data to confirm the trends. We observe different results depending on the stations. Some have disappeared, others are the object of interventions and remain stable. New stations are discoverd each year.
NATURAL VALUES: 2. Rivers: Measure the proper functionning of water bodies after hydrological restoration (remeandering)
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
Linear restoration Habtitats quality of water bodies monitorring (floor diversity, velocity and diversity of water levels). Hosting capacity of species indicator is calculated before and after restoration works. Macroinvertebrates monitoring. Hosting capacity indicator. Fish biomass (kg/ha) Birds population monitoring. IPA 3 campaigns (3 sessions every 10 years, several listening points stations)
> 75% linear restored : very good From 50 to 75% of linear restored : good From 25 to 50% of linear restored : medium < à 25% of linear restored : bad indicator increasing : Good Stability or indicator decreasing : Bad indicator increasing : Good Stability or indicator decreasing : Bad Biomass increase : Good Biomass stable : Medium Biomass decrease : Bad Total number of species decrease and > 4 water bodies characteristic species decrease by listening point : Bad Total number of species stable and < S4 water bodies characteristic species decrease by listening point : Good Total number of species incease and > 4 water bodies characteristic species increase by listening point : Very good
GOOD GOOD GOOD GOOD VERY GOOD to GOOD
72% of the Drugeon linear has been remandered so far, Chich is almost a Very good state. Works planned for next years will lead to a very good level of restoration. The hosting indicator after restoration works increased by a factor 2 to 3,3 . quatic invertebrates indicator increased by a factor 1 to 3,4 after restoration. Fish biomass increased by a factor 1,8 to 4,9 after restoration works. Specific richness increased to almost 20 species after restoration works, then stabilized for the last 10 years. Birds population of the Drugeon is currently richer in species than before restoration works for water bodies characteristic species. However, it has been subjected to a slow erosion for more than 10 years. This context reflects the national situation with a normalization of bird species. Habitats quality, disturbances and distribution areas modifications due to climate change must be evaluated.
NATURAL VALUES: 3. Agro-pastoral areas : Measuring the effectiveness of agroenvironmental management of agricultural plots on biodiversity
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
Grassland nesting birds monitoring. Targeted search. Common curlew and northern lapwing Monitoring of phytosociological groups in agropastoral areas. Spatial and temporal comparison between plots subjected to agroenvironmentalm easure and control plots .
< 12 nesting pairs and decreasing population : Bad From 12 to 20 nesting pairs and population stable : Good > 20 nesting pairs and popuation increasing : Very good Tipicality and surface increase : Very good Tipicality and surface stable : Good Tipicality and surface decrease : Bad
GOOD BAD to VERY GOOD
Number of individuals of those 2 species have been relatively stable for the past few years (about 15 nesting pairs) after a drastic drop for 20 years. Local context reflects national trend. Drugeon remains a major altitude site in France for those species. Disturbances, predation, habitats deterioration are the main identified causes. Results are varied depending on habitat types. Some habitats saw there tipicity decrease (transtionnal marshes, mountain meadows, pastured grasslands mesoeutrophic have evolved a lot in 10 years). Globally, succesive droughts and fertilization have a negative effect on those habitats. High marshes, peatland meadows and magaphorbiae grasslands are maintaining.
ECOSYSTEM SERVICE VALUES: Biodiversity support
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
Naturalist monitoring are essential for heritage species
see data above
see data above
Wetlands and peatlands host a tipycal and scarce biodiversity. Drugeon Basin is composed with a high number of characteristic heritage species. Biodiversity monitoring show a relative stability of those groups, particularly thanks to restoring works. Those monitorings sceintifically proved that water bodies biodiversity has improved due to restoration works. Agros-pastoral biodiversity is less known and highlights some limits for the agro-environmental mechanism developed in Natura 2000 sites.
ECOSYSTEM SERVICE VALUES: Hydrological functioning of the Basin
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
monitoring of the state of peatlands, aquifers and rivers : Macroinvertebrate, fish, physicochemical, thermal monitoring. Thèse en cours sur la compréhension du rôle hydrologique et hydrogéologique des Zones Humides de Têtes de Bassins dans le soutien d’étiage des cours d’eau (20199-2022)
Very good ecological state or sub-referential state (> DCE threshold for hydrobiological and physico-chemical monitoring of rivers préciser les seuils DCE
Restoration of wetlands and peatlands underway as noted by species monitoring, in the same way for the state of Drugeon and its tributaries. Restoration of peatlands allows water tables to be maintained even during lowwater periods = 10 km of neutralized ditches and 33 km of rewound streams; and better piezometric stability in peatlands OPTIMAL ?
Improved hydrological functioning and water availability = better resistance to droughts in peatlands and increase in the biological potential of rivers. Continuation of ecological recovery (quantitative and qualitative) = 9km of reclamation planned and 2km of ditches to neutralize
ECOSYSTEM SERVICE VALUES: Climate regulation : research station on the National Peatland Observation Service
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
measurement of carbon exchanges between the Frasne peatland and the atmosphere
Long-term reduction in CO2 emissions from the peatland.
Research station with long-term measurements, to simulate and assess the impact of climate change on carbon emissions from the peatland
Since installation (2018) peatland carbon emissions are in a downward trend. The link between hydrological and piezometric level and CO2 emissions, with a view to climate modeling: doctorate in progress (2019-2022)
CULTURAL VALUES: Animation and awareness-raising around the natural and historical heritage of peat bogs
MONITORING OF VALUES
THRESHOLDS OF SUCCESS
CONDITION OF VALUES
SUMMARY OF TRENDS AND RESULTS
Site visits, promotion of local events linked to the ancient exploitation of peat, conferences"
"No overall threshold, an objective of quality of reception and not of quantity of visitors, for the preservation of the species of sites open to the public. Adapted equipment and ecocounters on certain sites make it possible to count the number of visitors."
"Environmental education for visitors and locals on the themes of water / biodiversity / carbon." "Equipment provided: 7 km of specific wetland paths (peat bog, lake), 3 belvederes, 1 Ornitho observatory + educational tables"
"Increasing trend in the number of visitors to natural sites open to the public (in 2020/2019). Visits appreciated, improvement of the facilities planned for 2021-2022 (pontoon, observation tower, Life / Ramsar educational panels)."

Conservation Summary

Outcome of EAGL Vote on Site
Consensus

EAGL Summary
Pillar 1: Fair Governance The EAGL acknowledges that The Mixed Union of Aquatic Environments of the Haut-Doubs, operator of the Natura 2000 site, is legitimized in the management of this site by a strong support from local elected officials, who created this site, as well as socio-professionals. The Steering Committee ensures concertation and consultation with stakeholders in decision-making on the management of the site, none of whom are opposed to the project. Moreover, the human resources made available by the operator are considered adequate by the EAGL. The EAGL considers that the Drugeon Basin – Natura 2000 site has achieved all the standards of Pillar 1 of the Green List.

Pillar 2: Robust Planning The Natura 2000 site was originally well designed, incorporating the natural and cultural heritage environments and habitats associated with the Drugeon river. It is also composed of a regional nature reserve, a Sensitive Natural Areas and a Prefectural Order for the Protection of Biotope. These tools allow the application of regulations specific to each of the key values protected in areas of higher stakes. The impact of the site on its socio-economic context is known and developed in the management plan (DOCOB) but is not the subject of socio-economic studies per se. Climate change issues are taken into account and anticipated, in particular in the context of the Drugeon river’s renaturation. The main threats are identified and are related to the intensification of agricultural practices, drinking water catchments and visiting practices on its periphery in particular. The issue concerning the intensification of agricultural practices on the periphery and within the Natura 2000 site raises questions from the EAGL about their sustainability and compatibility with biodiversity issues in a near future. The EAGL considers that the Drugeon Basin – Natura 2000 site has achieved all the standards of Pillar 2 of the Green List. However, the EAGL encourages the operator to remain attentive to the evolution of agricultural practices on the site.

Pillar 3: Effective Management Some identified threats can be addressed like rectification of the Drugeon’s bed through successful and appropriate restoration operations by local actors, or the drainage of wetlands. On the other hand, as already stated , the intensification of agricultural practices, drinking water catchments or urban intensification in the vicinity are threats for which the operator is not in control. It should be noted, however, that thanks to the involvement of local elected officials in the management of the Natura 2000 site, these issues are known and have been well addressed so far (limitation of intensive catchments, presence of very few farm owners…). The EAGL acknowledges here the key benefit of the Natura 2000 contracts : The aid granted to farmers under the Natura 2000 scheme has a positive impact on maintaining practices compatible with the management o fkey values on site. The EAGL considers that the Drugeon Basin – Natura 2000 site has achieved all the standards of Pillar 3 of the Green List. However, the EAGL encourages the operator to remain attentive to the evolution of agricultural practices on the site.

Pillar 4: Successful Conservation Considering the means of action allocated to Natura 2000 site operators, the working group considers that the results achieved in terms of conservation of natural and cultural and key values, and ecosystem services are being achieved. This is especially the case for key habitats (peat bogs, Drugeon, associated environments, etc.). The EAGL considers that flora and fauna are in better condition than when the site was created. Moreover, local cultural values related to peat exploitation are preserved and valued. The EAGL considers that the Drugeon Basin Natura 2000 site has achieved all the standards of Pillar 4 of the Green List.

Decision Following the review of the application of the Drugeon Basin Natura 2000 site, the EAGL welcomed the remarkable efforts of the team of managers for the conservation of the values of the site and underlined the quality and completeness of the file. On the basis of these elements, the EAGL voted in majority in favor of the inscription of the Drugeon Basin Natura 2000 site on the protected areas green list with 10 votes in favour. The EAGL recommends to remain vigilant about local agricultural practices and their compatibility with natural key values and ecological processes. The sites’s visit report is available on another platform for the reviewer and Committee anytime.

Reviewer Summary
The Reviewer validates the GL process of the “Site Natura 2000 Bassin du Drugeon” as being in compliance with the rules and procedures of the User Manual. During the EAGL meeting on March 4, the Site Representative made a well-argued yet transparent presentation of the site self-assessment and showed a good understanding of the GL standard and its indicators, also valuing the support of the site’s Mentor in this regard. It is worth noting that the French GL jurisdiction makes consistent use of the Mentor mechanism, as all candidate sites are assigned a Mentor, with GL experience (as they are often themselves representatives of existing Green Listed sites) to guide them through the GL application process. The EAGL then proceeded with the site visit feedback and their vote (in the absence of the site representative and mentor. The Reviewer attended the whole discussion remotely. All relevant information and documentation were shared with the EAGL members and the Reviewer prior to the EAGL meeting and all required information and documentation are available on COMPASS (except for the site visit report (for confidentiality reasons), which will be shared with the GL Committee before their meeting). At the end of the discussion, the EAGL nominated, by a majority vote, the site for the Green List, recommending the site to keep monitoring the management of some threats, such as the agriculture intensification. This point together with the overall outcome of the EAGL assessment are clearly reflected in the EAGL final report on the PA in COMPASS. Regarding the indicators considered as non-applicable given the site’s Natura 2000 designation, the Reviewer recommends the EAGL to take this new aspect into consideration in its next Indicator adaptation (the “Site Natura 2000 Bassin du Drugeon” is the first French Natura 2000 site to apply for the Green List).

The Reviewer validates the site GL process of this site and submits the site to Green List Committee for their final decision.

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